The causes of a disease or disorder.


A blood deficiency. Anaemia is, effectively, reduced levels of the red blood pigment haemoglobin. Since this occurs in red blood cells (erythrocytes), a lack of red blood cells (erythrocytes) is often associated with a lack of blood pigment. The blood pigment transports oxygen in the blood, so a deficiency is associated with insufficient oxygen supply to the body. Anaemia can have many causes...

Animal experimentation

Basic research is unfortunately still often conducted on animals, such as dogs, particularly in human medicine. The findings from such research can frequently be applied to other animals, such as humans or cats.


Loss of appetite, aversion to eating, in veterinary medicine also referred to as inappetence.


Indifference, listlessness


Wasting away of tissue, a reduction in the volume and/or size of tissues or organs.


Increased levels of nitrogen-containing breakdown products of protein metabolism in the blood.


Calcitriol is the active form of vitamin D3. It is synthesised in the kidney from vitamin D. It is independently activated by three factors: increased parathyroid hormone levels, reduced calcium levels or indirectly via reduced phosphate levels. Calcitriol acts on four organs: 1) Bones: It promotes bone and inhibits bone resorption. 2) Intestines: It increases calcium and phosphate absorption in...

Cardiac dilatation

An enlargement of the heart owing to the expansion (dilatation) of the interior of the heart.


Creatinine is a breakdown product of muscle metabolism. Its blood level is dependent, among many factors, on age, weight, nutritional status and muscle mass. Hence, creatinine levels in the blood vary from individual to individual. Creatinine is continuously excreted in the urine. Increased blood creatinine is an indication and also a measure of reduced filtration in the kidneys (glomerular...